Shelby Nies

Religion 319—Dr. Westblade

November 2015

A Beautiful God:

Jonathan Edwards’ Theology of Beauty

 

When the average person thinks about Jonathan Edwards, his Calvinism, fire and brimstone, or perhaps his emphasis on the sovereignty of God stand out in their minds. Though he did preach those doctrines, woven throughout his thought one finds an unexpected thematic thread. A fascination with nature that began in his youth and continued throughout his life, tied to his desire to explore the Calvinistic conceptions of the Trinity and the nature of God, led him to a theology of beauty that became essential to his understanding of the Christian faith. Edwards found God not only good and true, but also intrinsically beautiful. He weaves this theme into many of his greatest works, including A Treatise Concerning Religious Affections and his posthumously complied History of the Work of Redemption, as well as writing about it specifically in his miscellaneous notebooks and in an essay called “Concerning the Secondary and Inferior Kind of Beauty” in his Ethical Writings. Beginning with that essay, one can compile an Edwardsian definition of beauty, which leads to his view of God as beautiful and the impact that sight has on the soul.

In mimicry of Edwards’ writing itself, one must begin with a definition of terms before drawing out doctrines or applications. Thus by turning to that essay, “Concerning the Secondary and Inferior Kind of Beauty,” one can delineate Edwards’ definition of beauty. He opens the paper by differentiating between the two types of beauty: primary and secondary. He describes primary beauty as a spiritual unity of being to being or minds to a mental or spiritual existence in a kind of moral beauty, which he rephrases as a union of the mind and heart.[1] Sang Hyun Lee also restates this concept by saying it is “consent or love between perceiving beings.”[2] In contrast, Edwards depicts secondary beauty as the mutual consent or agreement of things in form or end (order, symmetry, proportion, harmony, etc.) such as the human body or a melodious tune.[3] To Edwards, uniformity in the midst of variety constitutes beauty. For example, Kin Yip Louie synthesizes Edwards’ conception of the symmetry of geometric figures as a form of mutual consent,[4] which Edwards describes as a visible end or unity of design[5] in proportionate shapes. This uniformity and consent of nature, he argues, is natural beauty.[6] Robert W. Jenson summarizes Edwards’ view by saying, “As to wherein natural beauty consists, [Edwards] is provided with an explicit doctrine…by the nature of his experience of it: ‘The beauty of the world consists wholly of sweet mutual consents, either within itself, or with the Supreme Being.’”[7] Consequently, Edwards defines both kinds of beauty as a sort of uniformity or consent, but primary beauty exists only amongst rational beings whereas secondary beauty lies in the rest of the natural world.

Yet the two profoundly relate to one another in that secondary beauty enlivens people to the sight of primary beauty, per Edwards’ observation that it contains some image of true or spiritual beauty. He says, “[God] has constituted the external world in an analogy to things in the spiritual world,” and, “He makes an agreement or consent of different things, in their form, manner, measure, etc. to appear beautiful, because here is some image of a higher kind of agreement and consent of spiritual beings.”[8] Lee condenses this statement by reasoning that Edwards believes secondary beauty is beautiful simply because of its analogous relation to the beauty of God.[9] Edwards’ uses the harmony of sounds and the beauties of nature as the primary examples of such a resemblance to God’s beauty in secondary sources. He describes these as assisting the virtuous in disposing them to “the exercises of divine love” and enlivening in them “a sense of spiritual beauty.”[10] Though he distinguishes this kind of beauty from the beauty of true holiness, because it does not increase men’s virtue to appreciate the excellency of such things, it remains analogous to spiritual and virtuous beauty,[11] and thereby enlightens people’s eyes to see the beauty of God.

Fundamentally, beauty stems from proportion or harmonious agreement. Men find secondary beauty appealing because of its agreement and proportion, which form the ground and rule of beauty[12] according to Edwards. Louie extends Edwards’ argument so far as to say that God designs the laws of nature so they speak to humans about spiritual beauty.[13] Edwards upholds this idea in his Religious Affections when he says, “There is a symmetry and a beauty in God’s workmanship…”[14] as if He purposed all His works to unveil such a beauty. This statement intertwines with his argument in “Concerning the Secondary and Inferior Kind of Beauty” wherein he outlines symmetry as greater in proportion to the greatness of the thing (i.e. the symmetry of a flower compared to that of the human face),[15] yet finds that all reveal aspects of beauty in their proportion. For Edwards, this symmetry must be seen in the totality of the object. Louie indicates that Edwards argues the beauty of the world cannot be appreciated unless one knows God’s purpose for the world,[16] and that “beauty reveals the essence of reality” and “reality and totality is based on God.”[17] Edwards’ illustration of the pillars fits this concept: pillars randomly placed cannot be found nearly as beautiful as those that make up a building, which are beautiful in their uniformity.[18] Thus the totality of the building rather than the pillars themselves stands as the cause of its symmetry and the beauty seen therein. Jenson states, “The whole of reality is a great harmony,”[19] which explains how beauty reveals its essence. Since beauty’s nature lies in harmonious relations[20] of proportion or uniformity[21] and reveals the quintessence of reality, a reality based on God intrinsically relies upon His beauty.

It follows, then, that one can define true beauty in its highest sense as the union of the heart to God, the Being of beings.[22] Edwards considers this superior to the beauty found in uniformity in the midst of variety: he says, “Just affections and acts have a beauty in them distinct from, and superior to, the uniformity and equality there is in them…and that is the expression and manifestation there is in them of benevolence to Being in general.”[23] He observes that a just gratefulness to a benevolent heart from a rational being contains the same kind of uniformity and proportion that he sees in the natural world, which tends toward the glory of God and the general good. Michael J. McClymond and Gerald R. McDermott restate this idea by saying that the beauty of the natural world consists of the “mutual love” between intelligent beings, and that the “truest idea of divinity” exists therein.[24] Through such a proportionate mutual love, the heart can be united to God as the union of an intelligent, created being to the divine Being of beings and Creator in beautiful harmony.
            Appending Edwards’ definition of beauty, one moves to view God’s supreme beauty on display. Louie states that beauty is the “very essence and purpose of the world,”[25] or rather that God created the material world so that His beauty would be known to intelligent beings besides Himself. Within the framework of creation, God both receives and communicates good.[26] McClymond and McDermott write, “God’s self-communication or overflow transpired from all eternity” in the Trinity and then again in the creation of the world.[27] Expounding upon this idea Jenson quotes from Edwards that “‘the communication of the happiness of the Son of God’” is the end of creation.[28] In connection with Jenson’s point, McClymond and McDermott summarize that God created the world to manifest Christ’s beauty,[29] and Amy Plantinga Pauw cites Edwards in agreement: “‘the beauty of the world is a communication of God’s beauty.’”[30] Hence, God primarily displays His beauty to humans through the created world.

This makes God the essence of man’s aesthetic experience. Because God’s beauty has touched humans through the world,[31] as it images His beauty,[32] man sees Christ’s manifold excellencies in nature.[33] Extending this concept, McClymond and McDermott say, “Beauty is the first principle of being” as the first of God’s perfections.[34] Edwards offers some clarity on this idea in his Religious Affections: “The beauty of all arises from God’s moral perfection. This shows the glory of all God’s works…”[35] Therefore, since only divine beauty is truly beautiful,[36] and beauty arises from and abides as first of God’s moral perfections, being one of God’s works bestows glory and a form of divine beauty on humanity. Isaiah 60 affirms that God will be the glory, also translated ‘beauty,’ of His people, and that through the work of His hands He will display His beauty.[37] Pauw identifies that the “beauty of the created world derives from the fact ‘that God does purposefully make and order one thing to be in an agreeableness and harmony with another.’”[38] This suggests that humanity itself, as one part of God’s beauty displayed in the world, can become a partaker of the divine nature of harmonious agreement and moral perfection.

In the Trinity, the overflow of God’s love as the fountain of the infinite, harmonious happiness He has in Himself rises as the source of created beauty.[39] If, as Lee says, “every created entity is to be a repetition or image of God’s beauty,”[40] then the harmony of those entities that are spiritual, and therefore possessing of divine beauty,[41] reflects the harmony of the Trinity itself.[42] Edwards says the harmony of creation “‘is indeed a very true picture and shadow of the real glories of religion,’” and thence the personal communal harmony of human souls, other created spirits, and God can be seen as the image of the Trinity on earth.[43] Practically, one can express this harmonious beauty of God through music. Edwards believed, “‘The best, most beautiful, and most perfect way that we have of expressing a sweet concord of mind to each other, is music.’”[44] In his essay “The End is Music,” Jenson articulates this idea by saying, “the heart of mutual love is music.”[45] He continues, “‘Amiable proportion’ would be as close to a definition of deity as Edwards would…come,” and Edwards described singing as amiable because of its proportion.[46] This returns to the concept that mutual love, which has music at its heart, is the truest idea of divinity.[47] The singing in parts that proportionally relate to one another depicts Pauw’s statement that the beauty of the whole is a complex harmony.[48] That harmony typifies the divine unity and exquisite proportion found in the Trinity, which Edwards views as the beauty of God on display.[49]

Edwards asserts that God as Trinity “‘is the supreme Harmony of all,’”[50] of Father, Son, and Spirit.[51] God exists as the ‘telos’ of all beauty:[52] “The deity of Edwards’s God is beauty… moreover, [he] is…beautiful only because he is triune,” which explains why the Trinity, not simply God the Father or Christ, is the supreme harmony of all. Edwards depicts this unanimity as God’s infinite mutual love of Himself, which he also describes as His infinite beauty,[53] in a communal harmony that can and does embrace others—especially the Church as Christ’s bride.[54] Lee says, “Intelligent beings are created so that they can know and love God’s beauty, thereby repeating in time and space God’s inter-trinitarian knowing and loving of beauty.”[55] Thus God, distinguished as such by His divine beauty,[56] in His Trinitarian nature displays a harmony that He created humans to see, love and emulate.

When such intelligent beings appreciate the beauty of God, they participate in the Holy Spirit as God’s infinite beauty.[57] Because humans lack the natural faculty to perceive God, He provides a spiritual sense through which He presents divine beauty to their souls.[58] Pauw refers to this as the “infusion” of the Holy Spirit, which produces true virtue in the saints.[59] Describing loving affection towards God as the essence of the Holy Spirit, Louie says, “Holiness, which is as it were the beauty and sweetness of the divine nature, is as much the proper nature of the Holy Spirit, as heat is the nature of fire.”[60] Jenson indicates that Edwards sees man’s knowledge and love of God as “a ‘conformity’ to God’s holiness, to his knowledge and love of himself.”[61] Again, Pauw reasserts that God enables those indwelt by the Holy Spirit “to partake of God’s own ‘excellence and beauty; that is of holiness, which consists in love.’”[62] For Edwards, the ability to partake in the holiness of God’s love, excellence and sweetness through the presence of the Holy Spirit is a joyful, voluntary engagement in God’s beauty.[63]

The beauty of God, in all its supreme excellence, necessarily impacts humanity. Louie calls spiritual beauty the “ontological bridge” between God and human beings.[64] He says, “The triune life of God is the bridge between God and humanity, while the essence of God makes clear the infinite gap between God and humanity.”[65] By beholding the divine beauty of the triune God and acquiring that same beauty in one’s soul, he partakes in the divine nature,[66] despite his inherent inability to bridge the gap to God in himself. Edwards states that nothing pertains to divine things “besides the beauty of their moral excellency,” and that “spiritual understanding consists…in a sense of the heart, of the supreme beauty and sweetness of the holiness or moral perfection of divine things, together with all that discerning and knowledge of things of religion, that depends upon, and flows from such a sense.”[67] Hence the saints’ participation in the moral excellency of divine things increases their sense of the beauty of them and their spiritual understanding of the things of religion, thereby bridging the gap that exists between God and man. Through this participation in God’s triune beauty, God makes His creatures beautiful[68] as an extension of the beauty He communicates to them.[69]

Particularly, this union of beauty that ties God to the world[70] reveals itself as the “peculiar beauty of the church of Christ.”[71] Since the Spirit’s love binds believers together as a community, the preeminence of the saints’ love must be visible to their neighbors.[72] Isaiah 60 depicts this as the LORD arising upon His people, His glory being seen upon them and, as a result, the “nations shall come to [their] light, and kings to the brightness of [their] rising.”[73] Such a Christian harmony and beauty that attracts the nations parallels the harmony of heaven itself.[74] Edwards says that by seeing the beauty of holiness, men “understand the true glory of heaven, which consists in the beauty and happiness that is in holiness.”[75] In that beautiful sight, the saints unite themselves as citizens of a heavenly kingdom while yet on earth.
            As another outcome of their increased sense of the sweetness of God’s perfections, those who see the beauty of God’s holiness will also see the hatefulness of sin.[76] McClymond and McDermott highlight that the effect of beauty lies in the affections[77] of the heart. Due to the impact beauty has on the affections, Edwards weaves it throughout the end of his Religious Affections treatise. He argues that a true sense of beauty comes from a correct ordering of the affections,[78] and furthers the idea that “all true experimental knowledge of religion” arises from a sense of spiritual beauty.[79] Because Edwards believes that spiritual knowledge “primarily consists in a taste or relish [a sense] of the amiableness and beauty of that which is truly good and holy,”[80] and God gives this spiritual sense to the heart through regeneration, the saints acquire a beauty that is “the moral image of God in them.”[81] This moral image lies in a comprehensive, well-ordered moral and spiritual character, “so that they become ‘proportioned Christians.’”[82] As such, they possess proportionate taste for God’s holiness and distaste for the filthiness of sin.

Not only will this view of God’s sacrificial love for the undeserving attract the nations and augment the holiness of the saints, it will also enthrall those who are given eyes to see that “ineffable beauty.”[83] George M. Marsden says, “Seeing the beauty of the redemptive love of Christ as the true center of reality, they will love God and all that he has created”[84] as the intrinsic impact such a sight has on the soul. As Louie puts it, “God is beautiful both in himself and as the redeemer of the world.”[85] His love as redeemer can be described as the principal and original beauty that then creates love—the virtue in which Edwards sees the true beauty of a Christian appear[86]—among rational beings.[87] The triumph of such a love, irrespective of the nature of the subject, over evil will cause them to love the goodness and beauty therein.[88]

Furthermore, beauty not only provides man a bridge to God, a union in the church with His triune nature, a more perfect ordering of the affections and a profound love for the beauty of His redemption, but also impacts the course of history. In his History of the Work of Redemption, Edwards claims that God’s providence in history “completes the glory of all the elect by Christ, by bringing them to perfect excellency and beauty in his holy image.” This design both advances them in honor and increases their joy as He unites them with the elect angels in elevated glory under one head, Jesus Christ.[89] Knowing that God has a regular and certain end, chiefly the glory of Himself and of those who believe in Him, “may greatly serve to show [man] the consistency, order, and beauty, of God’s works of providence.”[90] Edwards later restates this idea to reemphasize that the existence of a purpose toward which God moves all of history on earth images His harmonious, orderly and beautiful wisdom.[91] He makes the happiness of the Son complete in a spouse—whom He acquires by redeeming her as the end of all creation,[92] and for which He orchestrates all of history.

Ultimately the world will come to rest, according to Edwards, in perfect harmony through the means of its beautiful God. Jenson writes, “The harmony of our love, finally perfectly harmonized with the supreme harmony” will conclude all things.[93] God will unite the church, the earthly picture of harmony, to its heavenly counterpart, the Trinity, through the marriage of the Son to His bride. Edwards “desire[s] that the ‘admirable contexture and harmony of the whole’ of reality would shine forth, to the glory of the triune God, ‘the supreme harmony of all.’”[94] In the millennium, toward which all things move in Edwards’ view, the whole world would experience union “‘in peace and love in one amiable society…knit together in sweet harmony’” as one beautifully proportionate body.[95] In that final orderly harmony, God’s triune beauty will most fully shine forth and His glory cover the earth like water covers the sea.

Thus the theology and faith of Jonathan Edwards rests heavily upon his perception of God’s beauty as fundamental to His nature. Considering that God infused His creation with secondary beauties, each form of which reveals various aspects of the excellent nature of Christ, He enlivens men to the sight of primary spiritual beauties as well. Edwards saw that the harmonious and proportionate nature of the natural world mirrors the essence of the Trinity, which possesses perfect love and unity within itself. Without the communal nature of God existing with the Holy Spirit as the bond of love between the Father and the Son, men could not partake in the mutual love of God. Because God communicates goodness to intellectual beings through creation, and makes His people beautiful by giving them the Holy Spirit, men can participate in the moral perfection of God. The Holy Spirit works in the saints to give them the spiritual sense[96] that necessarily reorders their affections to enable them to recoil from sin, gain an understanding of the things of religion and engage in the excellence and beauty of God. This spiritual beauty given to Christians increases both their ability and desire to love God and to reflect His glories to their neighbors. Redemption, being the foremost example of God’s love to man, captures their gaze, while His providence in completing His purpose to unite all in perfect harmony to Himself displays to them the consistency, order and beauty of His nature. God thereby accomplishes the fulfillment of all things through the perfect image of His beauty seen in the union of Christ to the church. Only then will He, the beautiful God, receive the infinite glory He deserves.

Bibliography

Jenson, Robert W. America’s Theologian: A Recommendation of Jonathan Edwards. New York: Oxford University Press, 1988.

Jenson, Robert W. “The End is Music.” In Edwards in our Time: Jonathan Edwards and the Shaping of American Religion, edited by Sang Hyun Lee and Allen C. Guelzo, 161-171. Grand Rapids: Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing Co., 1999.

Lee, Sang Hyun. “Edwards on God and Nature: Resources for Contemporary Theology.” In Edwards in our Time: Jonathan Edwards and the Shaping of American Religion, edited by Sang Hyun Lee and Allen C. Guelzo, 15-44. Grand Rapids: Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing Co., 1999.

Louie, Kin Yip. The Beauty of the Triune God: The Theological Aesthetics of Jonathan Edwards. Eugene, OR: Pickwick Publications, 2013.

https://books.google.com/books?id=EPNMAwAAQBAJ&pg=PA56&lpg=PA56&dq=hutcheson+treatise+on+beauty&source=bl&ots=fTTehv5kNi&sig=v8HgcrSb1R3zcIebf1h_7rjooOU&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0CDEQ6AEwA2oVChMIhrGyr8OJyQIVyO0eCh0_IAr9#v=onepage&q=hutcheson%20treatise%20on%20beauty&f=false  Accessed Nov. 2015

 

Marsden, George M. Jonathan Edwards: A Life. New Haven: Yale University Press, 2003.

McClymond, Michael J. and Gerald R. McDermott. The Theology of Jonathan Edwards. New York: Oxford University Press, 2012.

Pauw, Amy Plantinga. The Supreme Harmony of All: The Trinitarian Theology of Jonathan Edwards. Grand Rapids: Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing Co., 2002.

 

Works of Jonathan Edwards used and referenced:

Concerning the Secondary and Inferior Kind of Beauty; Accessed Nov. 2015 http://edwards.yale.edu/archive?path=aHR0cDovL2Vkd2FyZHMueWFsZS5lZHUvY2dpLWJpbi9uZXdwaGlsby9nZXRvYmplY3QucGw/Yy43OjY6Mi53amVv

 

A Treatise Concerning Religious Affections; Accessed Nov. 2015

http://www.ccel.org/ccel/edwards/affections.pdf

The History of the Work of Redemption; Accessed Nov. 2015

            http://www.ccel.org/ccel/edwards/works1.xii.html

A Divine and Supernatural Light; Accessed Nov. 2015

            http://www.ccel.org/e/edwards/sermons/supernatural_light.html

 



[1] Jonathan Edwards, “Concerning the Secondary and Inferior Kind of Beauty,” 561 and 565.

[2] Sang Hyun Lee, “Edwards on God and Nature: Resources for Contemporary Theology,” in Edwards in our Time: Jonathan Edwards and the Shaping of American Religion, ed. Sang Hyun Lee and Allen C. Guelzo (Grand Rapids: Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing Co., 1999), 31.

[3] Edwards, “Concerning the Secondary and Inferior Kind of Beauty,” 561-562.

[4] Kin Yip Louie, The Beauty of the Triune God: The Theological Aesthetics of Jonathan Edwards (Eugene, OR: Pickwick Publications, 2013), 57.

[5] Edwards, “Concerning the Secondary and Inferior Kind of Beauty,” 563.

[6] Ibid., 565.

[7] Robert W. Jenson, America’s Theologian: A Recommendation of Jonathan Edwards (New York: Oxford University Press, 1988), 16.

[8] Edwards, “Concerning the Secondary and Inferior Kind of Beauty,” 564.

[9] Lee, 31.

[10] Edwards, “Concerning the Secondary and Inferior Kind of Beauty,” 565.

[11] Ibid., 573.

[12] Ibid., 566; also note that Michael J. McClymond and Gerald R. McDermott argue that Edwards linked beauty to his concept of proportion in their book on page 96.

[13] Louie, 80.

[14] Edwards, A Treatise Concerning Religious Affections, 365.

[15] Edwards, “Concerning the Secondary and Inferior Kind of Beauty,” 567.

[16] Louie, 60.

[17] Louie, 62.

[18] Edwards, “Concerning the Secondary and Inferior Kind of Beauty,” 567.

[19] Jenson, America’s Theologian: A Recommendation of Jonathan Edwards, 20.

[20] McClymond and McDermott state this concept in a slightly different way: all beauty comes from a similarity or identity of relations, 97.

[21] Also note that uniformity and proportion can be found in immaterial things such as wisdom, justice and virtue (Edwards, “Concerning the Secondary and Inferior Kind of Beauty,” 568-569). He defines wisdom as a united tendency of thoughts, ideas, etc. to one general purpose, which McClymond and McDermott restate as a sweet mutual consent between people, 94. This mutual consent is the harmony or uniformity that Edwards sees as beautiful. He defines justice as the agreement of different things that have relation to one another in nature, and virtue as an agreement of inclinations/action with truth—both of which are further forms of the “same sort of beauty.”

[22] Edwards, “Concerning the Secondary and Inferior Kind of Beauty,” 571.

[23] Edwards, “Concerning the Secondary and Inferior Kind of Beauty,” 572.

[24] McClymond and McDermott, 95.

[25] Louie, 76.

[26] Louie, 75.

[27] McClymond and McDermott, 5 and 97.

[28] Jenson, America’s Theologian: A Recommendation of Jonathan Edwards, 42.

[29] McClymond and McDermott, 95.

[30] Amy Plantinga Pauw, The Supreme Harmony of All: The Trinitarian Theology of Jonathan Edwards (Grand Rapids: Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing Co., 2002), 83.

[31] Louie, 82.

[32] Jenson, America’s Theologian: A Recommendation of Jonathan Edwards, 17.

[33] Lee, 32.

[34] McClymond and McDermott, 5.

[35] Edwards, A Treatise Concerning Religious Affections, 273.

[36] Louie, 82.

[37] Isaiah 60:19 and 21, English Standard Version, Holy Bible.

[38] Pauw, 81.

[39] McClymond and McDermott highlight that his beauty is created, not discovered, 8.

[40] Lee, 40.

[41] Louie discusses that the beauty of spiritual beings is also divine, 82-83.

[42] Jenson, America’s Theologian: A Recommendation of Jonathan Edwards, 19.

[43] Jenson quotes Edwards, America’s Theologian: A Recommendation of Jonathan Edwards, 17.

[44] Jenson quotes Edwards, America’s Theologian: A Recommendation of Jonathan Edwards, 20.

[45] Robert W. Jenson, “The End is Music,” in Edwards in our Time: Jonathan Edwards and the Shaping of American Religion, edited by Sang Hyun Lee and Allen C. Guelzo (Grand Rapids: Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing Co., 1999), 169.

[46] Jenson, “The End is Music,” 170.

[47] See page four and footnote 24.

[48] Pauw, 84.

[49] In Isaiah 60:21, God says that the branch of His planting, the work

[50] Jenson quotes Edwards, America’s Theologian: A Recommendation of Jonathan Edwards, 91.

[51] Jenson, “The End is Music,” 166.

[52] Louie, 62.

[53] Pauw cites Edwards, 83.

[54] Jenson, “The End is Music,” 166.

[55] Lee, 20.

[56] Pauw quotes Edwards, 85.

[57] Louie, 83.

[58] Louie, 87-88.

[59] Pauw, 153.

[60] Louie, 89.

[61] Jenson, America’s Theologian: A Recommendation of Jonathan Edwards, 40.

[62] Pauw, 182-183.

[63] McClymond and McDermott, 5.

[64] Louie, 91.

[65] Louie, 94.

[66] Louie, 92.

[67] Edwards, A Treatise Concerning Religious Affections, 272.

[68] Isaiah 60:9 affirms that God will make His people beautiful.

[69] McClymond and McDermott, 96-97.

[70] McClymond and McDermott, 5.

[71] McClymond and McDermott, 101.

[72] Pauw, 166.

[73] Isaiah 60:1-3, English Standard Version, Holy Bible.

[74] Pauw, 169.

[75] Edwards, A Treatise Concerning Religious Affections, 274.

[76] Edwards, A Treatise Concerning Religious Affections, 274.

[77] McClymond and McDermott, 99.

[78] Louie accentuates this point on page 63.

[79] Edwards, A Treatise Concerning Religious Affections, 275.

[80] Edwards, A Treatise Concerning Religious Affections, 281.

[81] McClymond and McDermott, 99-100.

[82] McClymond and McDermott, 100.

[83] George M. Marsden, Jonathan Edwards: A Life (New Haven: Yale University Press, 2003), 505.

[84] Marsden, 505.

[85] Louie, 94.

[86] Pauw, 166.

[87] Pauw, 82.

[88] Marsden, 505.

[89] Edwards, History of the Work of Redemption, 3.10.

[90] Edwards, History of the Work of Redemption, 3.10.4.

[91] Edwards, History of the Work of Redemption, 3.10.4.

[92] Jenson, America’s Theologian: A Recommendation of Jonathan Edwards, 41-42.

[93] Jenson, “The End is Music,” 170.

[94] Pauw, 89.

[95] Pauw quotes Edwards, 175.

[96] Aside from what has already been discussed regarding this spiritual sense, Edwards also says in “A Divine and Supernatural Light” that a sense of the heart, not reason, perceives beauty, and that the immediately imparted light to the soul from God is an emanation of His beauty that enables the creature to participate in the Deity.