Natalia Tobar


Prof. Westblade

JE Seminar


Spiritual Disciplines and Prayer: the God-designed path to holiness

Rather train yourself for godliness.

I Tim. 4.7


            Hebrews 13.7 reads, “Remember your leaders, those who spoke to you the word of God. Consider the outcome of their way of life, and imitate their faith.” Jonathan Edwards was a faithful teacher of the Word of God, a godly man who strived to know and love God. The present day church has neglected the important practice of spiritual disciplines. Edwards’ life is a great example of discipline and perseverance that leads to holiness and precious communion with God. This Eighteenth Century puritan has important lessons for our lives today concerning spiritual disciplines, and prayer in particular; his voice is still latent and brings much truth to the church.

It is necessary to put Edwards in his religious background and historical context, in order to understand his thought and practices. Edwards was born in the beginning of the XVII Century, under the heritage of the XVII Century puritans. The puritans saw themselves as pilgrims on this earth. They thought that they were the chosen people of God, taken out of Egypt into Canaan. They were the city set on a hill, which brings the light of godliness to all nations. At the same time, however, they knew well that they did not belong to this world. They were citizens of the heavenly city, and their spiritual life was a pilgrimage to heaven. Thomas Shepard, Anne Bradstreet and John Bunyan, in their writings, tell of their experiences as such pilgrims.[1] In this pilgrimage to heaven, they had to strive for conversion and godliness. Their whole lives were marked by their sacramental understanding of the world that pointed and strived to holiness. The devotional movement was part of this understanding.

Puritan devotional practices were corporate and private. The public practices consisted in gathering for public prayer, the reading of the word, the hearing of the sermon, the singing of Psalms, and the partaking of the Lord’s Supper. On the Sabbath, they gathered in the morning and in the evening.[2] Besides keeping the Lord’s Day, they had thanksgiving days, other days declared as “extraordinary occasions,” and public fast days in response to crisis.[3] The keeping and regularity of these practices reflected the “cycle of the salvation drama” that was “re-presented and reexperienced, [that is,] death and resurrection… humiliation and contrition.”[4]

In a private setting, each family practiced daily prayer, psalm singing and devotions. These practices took place mainly around meals, which also had a quasi-sacramental character.[5] Nevertheless, more predominant than family worship even were the secret exercises of private devotion for, “they provided the crucial point of contact between the believer and God; [and] without them the outward forms of public worship and family devotions could become hollow and hypocritical performances.”[6] Among the practices done in private are reading and study of the Scriptures, meditation, prayer, psalm singing, self-examination, secret days of fast and thanksgiving, journaling, and the keeping of the Sabbath.[7]

Of these private devotional rituals, “secret prayer was not only a means of grace but also the primary and most necessary means.”[8] New England preachers considered the “internall [sic] spirit of prayer” or the ability and desire to pray as the “major spiritual accomplishment of the conversion process.”[9] After the reading and studying of the Scriptures, prayer was the culmination of the re-experience of the conversion process. It included confession of sins, petitions for the salvation of the soul, petitions for blessings in this life, for the church, for others and their condition, for the conversion of others, and of thanksgiving.[10]

            Although the living of a well-ordered life through spiritual disciplines was very good and profitable for the soul and body, they knew that it did not guarantee the salvation of the person. Although the puritans considered them as means of grace by which people could experience God, none of them could assure God’s acceptance, because salvation is not by works, but through faith—the free and undeserved gift from God. George Marsden, in his biography of Edwards summarizes this puritan view of the spiritual disciplines,

Unable to control God’ grace, one could at best prepare oneself to be in a position to receive it. So the steps leading through the gradual process of conversion were steps of “preparation.” The irony of the rigorous discipline was that one could not take any pride in successfully following it. One sign of being on the road to conversion was to strive fervently to keep God’s law, but it was only when sinners came to realize their total inability to succeed in keeping that law that they would be prepared truly to depend on God’s grace. Seldom has there been a spiritual discipline where so much effort was put into recognizing the worthlessness of one’s own efforts.[11]


            Moreover, as the desire of practicing this disciplines and the realization of one’s total shortcoming were signs of being in the way to conversion, the desire—or inclination—and practice of spiritual disciplines were signs of true conversion in the believer. The true believer must desire to live in holiness, for now he loves the Lord and this love ought to motivate him to keep God’s commandments. Edwards in his sermon “All True Grace in the Heart Tends to Holy Practice in the Life” explains how saving faith, humility, repentance, hope, thankfulness, spiritual knowledge and love result in a life of holy practice and in the striving for godliness.[12] In his treatise on Religious Affections, he wrote, "'Tis as much the nature of one that is spiritually new born, to thirst after growth in holiness, as 'tis the nature of a newborn babe, to thirst after the mother's breast."[13] Thus, it is a sign of true conversion and saving faith when the practice of spiritual disciplines as a path to holiness seem sweet, beautiful and pleasant to the believer—because it leads to God.

            Donald Whitney summarizes Edwards’ view of sanctification with these words, “In one sense we may say that sanctification has nothing to do with regeneration or justification, and yet it has everything to do with demonstrating that one has experienced them.”[14] Therefore, we are justified only by grace through faith and not by works, but we were created for good works, prepared by God for us to walk in them.[15] Summarizing, spiritual disciplines are means of grace in the same way that everything is a means of grace, for everything can and does point us to God. Moreover, their practice was necessary for salvation, for they are the shadows and signs of the true regenerated nature in the believer.

Jonathan Edwards grew up in the Puritan context of strict discipline and acknowledgement of God’s arbitrary Will and Grace. His father, Timothy Edwards was intimately involved in the discipline and spiritual growth of his children. Edwards was the elder of a church in Northampton, which he led in the same way as his household: with love and discipline. We can see his care for his family in the letters he wrote to his wife, Esther. In one of them, dated August 7, the father recommends taking “special care of Jonathan,” that he would be well disciplined and that he would perform all his duties.[16] His first and preeminent concern for his children was their spiritual salvation and sanctification. Thus, “the most loving thing a parent could do was to teach children the disciplines that would open them to receive a truly submissive spirit;” although they were aware that, “Ultimately that could come only through the regenerating grace of God, […] habits of obedience to God’s commands could pave the way.”[17]

            In this manner, Timothy undoubtedly led the family in devotions, being so the custom for the puritan community. Donald Whitney suggests that almost all of Edwards’ spiritual disciplines began when he was a child, following the example of his father and the puritan tradition.[18] Thus, in his Personal Narrative, he describes an experience of a peculiar religious experience at the age of nine, at the “time of awakening in [his] father’s congregation.” At that young age, he gave much thought to religion, he prayed five times a day secretly, and prayed and talked with other boys. Nevertheless, some time after these experiences returned to his old ways of sin; thus, this experience was not a true conversion.[19] Thus, we see the emphasis on the disciplines of the Christian life even from a young age.

            In 1722-23, Edwards wrote his collection of Resolutions, seventy vows before God of the living of a holy life. In their introduction, we see his acknowledgment of the need of the grace of God and the purpose glorifying God. The very fact that he wrote these resolutions is a spiritual discipline in itself. Moreover, he resolved to read over them and evaluate himself upon them frequently. Many of the resolutions concerned spiritual disciplines, such as,

            5. Resolved, never to lose one moment of time, but improve it the most profitable way I possibly can.

            10. Resolved, when I feel pain, to think of the pains of martyrdom, and of hell.

            20. Resolved, to maintain the strictest temperance in eating and drinking.

            28. Resolved, to study the Scripture so steadily, constantly and frequently, as that I may find, and plainly perceive myself to grow in the knowledge of the same.

29. Resolved, never to count that a prayer, nor to let that pass as a prayer, nor that as a petition of a prayer, which is so made, that I cannot hope that God will answer it; nor that as a confession, which I cannot hope God will accept.

30. Resolved, to strive to my utmost every week to be brought higher in religion, and to a higher exercise of grace, than I was the week before.

37. Resolved, to inquire every night, as I am going to bed, wherein I have been negligent, what sin I have committed, and wherein I have denied myself: also at the end of every week, month and year.[20]


Consequently, since his childhood and youth, Edwards trained himself in the exercises of religion, so that he would draw closer to his God. In several instances in his journal, he mentions and evaluates his resolutions, and examines himself according to these self-imposed—though biblical, standards of holiness.

Although he had been brought up in the discipline of religion, there was a point in his life when “self-discipline had failed as much as it had succeeded” and self-examination was of no encouragement.[21] In 1721, Jonathan found himself in a time of intense spiritual struggles. Finally, he came to peace with the doctrine of the sovereignty and grace of God, and he found much delight in it. Then, it was “the first instance” that he recalled of “that sort of inward, sweet delight in God and divine things.”[22] The Lord had changed his “apprehensions and ideas of Christ, and the work of redemption, and the glorious way of salvation by him.”[23] Since then, he writes, “My mind was greatly engaged to spend my time in reading and meditating on Christ, on the beauty and excellency of his person, and the lovely way of salvation by free grace in him.”[24] Also, since then, he “prayed in a manner quite different from what [he] used to do; with a new sort of affection.”[25] He loved God and desired to honor and please Him with his life! Thus, this new affection was the essential element for the pursuit of holiness through the spiritual disciplines under which he had been trained and educated.

Marsden, in the biography of Edwards, describes the daily routine of this godly man,

The discipline was part of a constant, heroic effort to make his life a type of Christ. He began the day with private prayers followed by family prayers, by candlelight in winter. Each meal was accompanied by household devotions, and at the end of each day Sarah joined him in his study for prayers. Jonathan kept secret the rest of his daily devotional routine, following Jesus’ command to pray in secret. Throughout the day, his goal was to remain constantly with a sense of living in the presence of God, as difficult as that might be. Often he added secret days of fasting and additional prayers.[26]


He even saw his work as part of that discipline as worship to the Lord. Everything in his daily habits aimed at the pursuit of God and a holy life, pleasing to Him and to His glory. In the same manner as his father, he was most deeply concern about his children’s spiritual life. Jonathan and Sarah followed the New England puritan practice of breaking any signs of willfulness, and they “cultivated intense spirituality at early ages.”[27] This was extremely important for them, for, as John Wesley said, they though it necessary to “break their wills so that [one] may save their souls.”[28] This strict attitude was accompanied by the instruction of spiritual disciplines. In morning devotions, they would ask kids with questions about the Scriptures according to their age. On Saturday evening, he would teach them and explain to them the Westminster shorter catechism.[29] They taught selfless sacrifice as the supreme virtue, for the highest goal of the household was to subordinate one’s will to God’s.[30]

Edwards reminded his children of the duties and practices of religion by means of his correspondence, as well. In a letter written to Esther Edwards Burr offering comfort for her soul and body he writes, “Labor while you live, to serve God and do what good you can, and endeavor to improve every dispensation to God’s glory and your own spiritual good… be content to do and bear all that God calls you to in this wilderness, and never expect to find this world anything better than a wilderness.”[31] To his son Jonathan he advices, “seek him every day with all diligence.”[32] In a letter written to his daughter Mary, he recommends her, not to “forget and forsake God,” particularly not to “slack in secret religion,” and that she should “retire often from this vain world, and all its bubbles, empty shadows, and vain amusements, and converse with God alone; and seek that divine grace and comfort.”[33] Therefore, Edwards was a loving father who urged his children of the importance of the practice of religion in their lives over all things.

Edwards exhorts Mary “particularly” not to “slack in secret religion,” for the desire to have communion with God through prayer was an important sign of conversion. The hypocrites did not have the “spirit of prayer” given to them.[34] This spirit is “no other than God’s own Spirit dwelling in the hearts of the saints” and “it naturally leads to God, to converse with him by prayer.” Thus, Romans 8.26 mentions that the Spirit is making intercession for the saints. It is the Spirit dwelling in the believer that brings new dispositions to the person, or “holy appetites, an [sic] hungering and thirsting after righteousness, a longing after more acquaintance and communion with God.”[35] If these desires and the practice of prayer are absent, one cannot think himself as a child of God, for he is in disobedience—sin—and does not show love to God. Holiness is a requirement to see the Lord, according to Hebrews 12.14. To live a holy life is “to lead a life devoted to God; a life of worshipping and serving God; a life consecrated to the service of God.” One cannot live a holy life, if one is neglecting the duty of prayer, for “prayer is as natural expression of faith as breathing is of life.”[36]

In his sermon, “The Most High a Prayer-Hearing God,” Jonathan Edwards gives us reasons why to pray. He states the fact that the Lord does not need to find out about our needs and desires; He is omniscient and sovereign. His mercy is “not moved or drawn by anything in the creature,” but rather, “He is self-moved, and whatsoever mercy he bestows, the reason and ground of it is not to be sought for in the creature, but in God’s own good pleasure.”[37] He ordained, however, that prayer would be the means to bestow of mercy upon the creature. God accepts the prayer as an “offering” to him; He accepts it and acts upon it by granting liberally and greatly grace to the creature. The Most Gracious God invites the unworthy creatures to come before Him and even “delights in being sought to by prayer.”[38] Edwards notes two reasons for which God requires prayer, 1) Prayer constitutes our acknowledgement of our dependence on Him to his glory and 2) Prayer helps us to prepare ourselves for the reception of the mercy. This awesome and merciful God, Author and Fountain of all good, hears the prayers of faith, that is, the ones that are sincere and believing, and that have lawful desires and good ends; and in his infinitively great wisdom knows when and how to answer our requests. In addition, we have a great Mediator[39] who was the atonement for our sin, making possible our cleanness in the eyes of the Holy God, who purchased the privilege of meriting our prayer being heard and acceptable at His sight, and who “makes continual intercession for all that come to God in his name.”[40] With such a prayer-hearing and merciful God, it would be evil not to pray.

In the sermon “Hypocrites Deficient in the Duty of Prayer”, Edwards describes how a true prayer-filled life should be. To do so, he contrasts the ways in which hypocrites and true saints pray. It is not a true sign of conversion the fact that the hypocrites do practice prayer but inconsistently and only for a season while melting affections of false joy and comfort last. This practice, however, does not last for, “they have no love to the duty of prayer, and begin to grow weary of it.”[41] On the other hand, the believer seeing himself in “continual need of the help of God” sees reasonable, fit and lovely to seek Him “and perseveringly acknowledge your dependence upon him, by resorting to him, to spread your needs before him, and to offer up your request to him in prayer.”[42] Because prayer shows us the true, beautiful and holy nature of God and our sinful nature, the benefits of prayer are, according to Edwards, the nourishment of the new nature, the keeping of acquaintance and communion with God, taking the heart from this world’s vanities and “causing the mind to be conversant in heaven.” The sermon ends with an exhortation not to leave the practice of prayer and to fight against everything with potential to draw us away from prayer.

Nevertheless, if holiness seemed to Edwards “to be of a sweet, pleasant, charming, serene, calm nature; which brought an inexpressible purity, brightness, peacefulness, and ravishment to the soul,”[43] why did he practice the spiritual disciplines? Why did he practice any discipline at all? Were not these inclinations enough to live a holy life? Edwards recognizes that, although the believer does not make a practice of sin and God has placed these dispositions in his heart, he is still in the flesh and it is necessary to battle against the fleshy desires, in order to practice prayer.[44] Therefore, he urges the Christian, “To continue instant in prayer with all perseverance to the end of life, requires much care, watchfulness, and labor.” This is so because, “Perseverance is not only a necessary concomitant and evidence of a title to salvation; but also a necessary prerequisite to the actual possession of eternal life.”[45] Once again, the practice of spiritual disciplines in the process of sanctification can be summarized in the words of Donald Whitney, “Sanctification has nothing to do with regeneration or justification, and yet it has everything to do with demonstrating that one has experienced them.”[46] Moreover, the spiritual disciplines are the God-designed and God-ordained ways to increase the knowledge and love of God in the heart and so, to become more Christ-like. Therefore, since God designed them and ordered them, they are good and essential for the life of every believer.

In like manner, Edwards urges the believers not to leave the practice of prayer for, “Slack and slothful attendance upon it, and unsteadiness in it, are the causes which make it so great a burden as it is to some persons. On the other hand, if it is “constantly and diligently attended, it is one of the best means of leading not only a Christian and amiable, but also a pleasant life; a life of much sweet fellowship with Christ, and of the abundant enjoyment of the light of his countenance.”[47] He also cautions against the neglect of the duty, for it is commonly left off by degree, and that one is to examine the practices that cause him to abandon the duty and forsake prayer and the rest of the spiritual disciplines. It is true, Edwards says, that if you possess a genuine thirst for God, you will have "true and gracious longings after holiness,” which “are no idle ineffectual desires,"[48] yet he always diligently sought after this godliness through the disciplines and exhorted believers to persevere in the faith and walk the path of obedience.

Are these practices of a legalistic character and not pertaining to the present Covenant of Grace? The answer for this question is found beyond the nature of these practices, in the human heart. It is easy to be like the Pharisees and practice these disciplines as ends on themselves, as Whitney rightly concludes. [49] However, if one practices them as means for drawing closer to the Creator and Sustainer of all things, and as means to attain more conformity with Christ, they are not legalistic but good and profitable. As we have seen even in Edwards’ life, it is possible to practice the spiritual disciplines without knowing God. Nevertheless, if we have tasted the Lord, He has changed our affections and our desires, and now we long after holiness and communion with Him. In fact, the spiritual disciplines will increase these affections, for we will know more about God; and, as knowledge increases, our love will increase. At this point, it is essential to repeat what Edwards wrote in the introduction of his Resolutions, that one is not able to do anything apart from the grace of God. In this fashion, one is not able to maintain any discipline if the grace of God is not sustaining and strengthening him. Only by His power can anyone grow in knowledge of Him and in godliness. In conclusion, as long as the practice of spiritual discipline is responding to God’s command and ordination, and their aim is to achieve the goals of Christ-likeness and proximity to Him, one cannot say that these spiritual disciplines are legalistic.

Why are the spiritual disciplines important for children who have not had an experience of conversion? Are they of any use to unbelievers? About prayer, Edwards presents evidence from Proverbs and James that the Scriptures invite and command everyone to pray for wisdom, at least. Besides, even though there is no true goodness in the prayers—as in any other act—of the unbelievers, “[God] is pleased sometimes, of his sovereign mercy, to pity wicked men, and hear their cries.” Biblical examples of this are the prayers of the Ninevites (Jonah 3) and of Ahab (1 Kin. 21.27, 28). Lastly, and perhaps most importantly, the prayers of sinners, though they have no goodness in them, yet are means of preparation for mercy.[50] Thus, it is necessary to train children in the way of the Lord, and it would be very profitable for any person—believing or unbelieving, to pray and to practice these disciplines, for it would be as putting one in the “way of allurement” to be found by God. Whitney refers to this, as preparing the wood for the fire. Therefore, it is good, profitable and ordained by God that unbelievers also participate in these disciplines.

            We can learn many lessons from the life of this godly man, and imitate them, as Hebrews 13.7 instructs. It is commendable in Edwards’ character that he pursued intimacy and conformity with Christ in all his life “through the full range of spiritual disciplines.”[51] According to Donald Whitney, Jonathan Edwards used these spiritual disciplines as the highways to God, which all unite in a common bridge, Christ, the Mediator.[52] After all, these disciplines are the God-ordained means for sanctification and godliness. The disciplines in Edwards’ life, suggests Whitney, were biblical, personal and interpersonal, and sufficient for godliness (2 Peter 1.3). Edwards writes about stewardship, prayer, solitude, praise, family worship, learning, thinking, among other practices. Whitney points out specially the fact that Edwards used his intellectual capacities to increase his love for the Lord. Edwards’ diary and personal writings are filled with instances in which he cannot by weep or when his heart rejoiced in the Lord, by looking at God’s creation, by thinking in the wonders of the Redeemer, and by reading the Scriptures. Moreover, Whitney points out that even though we cannot be like Edwards in his intellectual capacities, we can imitate him in his discipline. Therefore, we ought to strive to live out these spiritual disciplines in our lives with all perseverance and determination, in order to be more like Edwards and more like Christ.

            Furthermore, from the devotional customs of the puritans and from the life of Edwards we can conclude that it is essential for the believers to instruct their children in the ways of the Lord since a very young age. These disciplines will, Lord willing, prepare their hearts and mind to receive the Gospel and fall in love with God. Although no one’s efforts can bring salvation to the soul, parents can and should teach their children to have discipline in the things of God. This principle is the same in the case of unbelievers. Even though, one cannot do anything to reach God, he can put himself in the way of allurement to be touched by God, if He pleases to do so.

            Finally, Edwards reminds us of the beauty and the preeminence of prayer in the Christian life with these words,

“Seeing we have such a prayer-hearing God as we have heard, let us be much employed in the duty of prayer. Let us pray with all prayer and supplication. Let us live prayerful lives, continuing instant in prayer, watching thereunto with all perseverance. Praying always, without ceasing, earnestly, and not fainting.”


May God give His children the grace to persevere in the disciplines that He has graciously ordained to follow in the path of holiness. May God renew these practices in the present-day church and use them for its edification and for His glory.

[1] Hambrick-Stowe, Charles. The Practice of Piety: Puritan Devotional Disciplines in Seventeenth-Century New England. (Chapel Hill: The University of North Carolina Press. 1988)p. 54

[2] Ibid. p. 99

[3] Ibid. p. 100, 102

[4] Ibid. p. 103

[5] “Their food became a reminder of God’s nourishment to the soul.” Ibid. p. 147

[6] Hambrick-Stowe. p. 156

[7] Ibid.

[8] Ibid. p. 177

[9] Hambrick-Stowe. p. 177

[10] Ibid. p. 182-4

[11] Marsden, George. Jonathan Edwards: A Life. (New Haven: Yale University Press, 2003). p. 28

[12] Edwards, Jonathan. “All True Grace in the Heart Tends to Holy Practice in the Life.” Charity and Its Fruits.

[13] *Jonathan Edwards, The Works of Jonathan Edwards, vol. 2, Perry Miller, gen. ed., Religious Affections, ed. John E. Smith (New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 1959), page 366.

[14] Whitney, Donald. “What Role Does Sanctification Play in Salvation?” in

[15] Eph. 2.9,10

[16] Marsden, pp. 20, 21

[17] Marsden. p. 20

[18] Whitney, Don. “Pursuing a Passion for God through Spiritual Disciplines: Learning from Jonathan Edwards.” Conference A God-Entranced Vision of All Things: The Unrivaled Legacy of Jonathan Edwards. October 11, 2003

[19] Edwards, Jonathan. Personal Narrative.

[20] Edwards, Jonathan. Resolutions.

[21] Marsden, p. 36

[22] Edwards, Personal Narrative.

[23] Ibid.

[24] Ibid.

[25] Ibid.

[26] Marsden. p.133

[27] Ibid. p. 254

[28] John Wesley, “On Obedience to Parents,” in The Works of the Rev. John Wesley, 16 Vol. (London, 1809-12), 7:103, quoted in Marsden, p. 21

[29] Marsden, p. 321, 322.

[30] Ibid. p. 323

[31] Letter to Esther Edwards Burr. Stockbridge, March 28, 1753.

[32] Letter to Jonathan Edwards Jr. Stockbridge, May 27, 1755

[33] Letter written to Mary Edwards. Northampton, July 26, 1749.

[34] See background of the puritan tradition.

[35] Edwards, Jonathan. “Hypocrites Deficient in the Duty of Prayer.”

[36] Edwards, Jonathan. Personal Narrative.

[37] Edwards, Jonathan. “The Most High a Prayer-Hearing God.”

[38] Ibid.

[39]Edwards, Jonathan. Miscellanies 772. Thus the Mediatour acts as a middle person between the Father & the Holy Ghost in transacting with sinful men from the Father so also is he in transacting for them & from them with the Father when their desires their prayers & praises their love their trust & their obedience is offered to God through X as Mediatour & the<o>se are presented to the Father through his hands for that love & tho<e>se prayers &[c ?] are from the actings of the Holy Spirit in them.

[40] Ibid.

[41] Edwards, “Hypocrites Deficient in the Duty of Prayer.”

[42] Ibid.

[43] Edwards, Jonathan. Personal Narrative.

[44] On January 12, 1723 he dedicated himself completely to God, to take himself as his “whole portion and felicity,” and to obey Him according to His law, “engaging to fight, with all [his] might, against the world, the flesh, and the devil, to the end of [his] life.”

[45] Edwards, Jonathan. “Hypocrites Deficient in the Duty of Prayer.”

[46] Whitney, Donald. “What Role Does Sanctification Play in Salvation?” in

[47] Edwards, Jonathan. “Hypocrites Deficient in the Duty of Prayer.”

[48] Edwards, Jonathan. Religious Affections. quoted in

[49] Whitney, Don. “Pursuing a Passion for God through Spiritual Disciplines: Learning from Jonathan Edwards.”

[50] Edwards, Jonathan. “The Most High a Prayer-Hearing God.”

[51] Whitney, Don. “Pursuing a Passion for God through Spiritual Disciplines: Learning from Jonathan Edwards.”

[52] Ibid.